- Ivan P. Pavlov, a physiologist.
The 1904 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology, for his work on the physiology of digestion.
- Ilya I. Mechnikov, a biologist.
The 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.
- Nikolay N. Semenov, a physical chemist.
The 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for his development of the chain reaction theory.
- Lev D. Landau, a physicist.
The 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his work on the theory for condensed matter, especially liquid helium.
- Aleksandr M. Prokhorov, a physicist.
The 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics, for his inventions in the field of laser technology.
- Wassily W. Leontief, an economist.
The 1973 Nobel Prize in Economics.
- Leonid V. Kantorovich, a mathematician and economist.
The 1975 Nobel Prize in Economics, for his contribution to the theory of optimum allocation of resources.
- Iosif A. Brodskiy, a poet
The 1987 Nobel Prize in Literature.
- Christopher Antoniou Pissarides, an economist
The 2010 Nobel Prize in economics.