A physiologist, the creator of the science of higher nervous activity. The Nobel Prize winner in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The comprehensive concept gave the possibility to take a fresh look at the human organism, raise the question of its reserves, and adaptability of functions to the environment. This was the first prize received by a Russian scientist.
A biologist, the pioneer of phagocytosis and intracellular digestion. He studied immunity and various aspects of human ageing. The Nobel Prize winner in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 for developing the theory of immunity, which gave an answer to the question why and to what extent the human body is immune to infectious diseases.
A physicist and chemist, one of the founders of chemical physics. The Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry in 1956 for his research into the mechanism of chemical reactions. The presented theory of the chain reaction made it possible to approach the solution of the main problem of theoretical chemistry - the relationship between the reactivity and the structure of the particles entering into the reaction.
A theoretical physicist, the founder of a scientific school. The Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry in 1962 for pioneering work in the theory of condensed matter, especially liquid helium. The presented material made a significant contribution to the quantum theory, as well as to the research into the interaction and nature of elementary particles.
A physicist, one of the founders of the most important direction of modern physics - quantum electronics. The Nobel Prize winner in Physics in 1964 for fundamental work on quantum electronics, which led to the creation of generators and amplifiers on the laser-maser principle.
An economist. The Nobel Prize winner in Economics in 1973 for the development of the “input-output” method and for its application to important economic problems. The proposed model touched on the aspect of the relationship of economic activity and the quality of the environment - pollution of the environment was mentioned as an independent sector.
A mathematician and economist, one of the founders of linear programming. The Nobel Prize winner in Economics in 1975 for his contribution to the theory of optimal allocation of resources.
A poet, essayist, playwright. The Nobel Prize winner in Literature in 1987 for a comprehensive literary activity, characterised by clarity of thought and poetic intensity. Moreover, Brodsky taught the history of Russian literature, the theory of poetry and other subjects at American and British universities, and was also engaged in literary translations into Russian and English.
Christopher Antoniou Pissarides
A Greek-Cypriot British economist. He gained fame for contributing to the search and harmonisation of the theory for studying the interaction between the job market and macroeconomics. The Nobel Prize winner in Economics in 2010 for researching markets with search models.